Kategori arşivi: İngilizce Gramer Dersleri

5-22 SO and NOT REPRESENTING a THAT-CLAUSE

5-22   SO and
NOT REPRESENTING a THAT-CLAUSE

a)        Believe, expect,
suppose, think, hope gibi fiillerden sonra ve Im
afraid, It

seems/appears gibi yapılardan sonra bir
that-clause yerine, olumlu bir anlam için so, olumsuz bir anlam
için not kullanılır. So ve not m bu
kullanımı cümleyi tekrar etmekten kaçınmak içindir.

-   Will that party win the election?

-   I think that party will win the election.

so (/ think so.)

-   Do you think the teacher will postpone the exam?

-   I hope that she will postpone the exam.

so (Ihope so.)

That-clause olumlu ise onun yerine so getirebiliriz.

I expect so/I believe so/Im afraid so/It seems
so, etc.

That-clause olumsuz ise onun yerine
not getirebiliriz. Fakat think fiili ile olumsuzluğu
ancak fiilin kendisini olumsuz yaparak vurgulayabiliriz.

-   Will that party win the election?

-   I dont think that party will win the
election.

so (I dont think so.)

Expect, suppose ve
believe fiillerini iki şekilde kullanabiliriz.

-   Has your brother found a solution?

-   I dont expect/suppose/believe that he has
found a solution.

so (/ dont expect so/1 dont suppose so/1 dont
believe so.)

-   Has your brother found a solution?

-   I expect/suppose/believe that he hasnt
found a solution.

not (I expect not/1 suppose not/1 believe not.)

It appears/seems yapısını
It doesnt seem/appear
so biçiminde olumsuz yapabiliriz.

-   Will she be able to pass the exam?

-   It doesnt seem/appear that shell be able
to pass the exam.

so (It doesn t seem/ appear so.)

Hope ve be afraid,
that-clauseun yerine not alır.

-   Is she coming with us?

-   I hope that she isnt coming with us.

not (I hope not)

-  
Have you been able to
find tickets for the game?

-   Im afraid / havent been able to find tickets for the game.

not (Im afraid
not)

b)        Bu yapılan kullanarak yamt
verirken bize yöneltilen sorunun yapısına dikkat etmeliyiz.

Olumlu anlam taşıyan tag-questiona onaylayıcı
yanıt vermek istersek so, olumsuz anlam taşıyan soruyu
onaylıyorsak, not kullanabiliriz.

-  
They can lend us some money, cant they?

-  
1 think so/ 1 hope so/ 1 suppose so.

-  
She wont be late for the appointment, will she?

-  
No, I
dont think so/ 1 hope
not/ I suppose not.

-  
She wont be able to come with us, will she?

-  
Im afraid not.

-  
She
inherited a large sum from her father, didnt she?

-  
Yes, I think so.

Bir soru sözcüğü ile başlayan sorulara bu yapıları
kullanarak yanıt veremeyiz. Çünkü bu sorular, açıklama ya da bilgi isteyen
sorulardır.

-  
How much money did she inherit from her father?

-  
A large sum.                                                                                      

Yardımcı fulle başlayan sorulara bu yapılan kullanarak
yanıt verebiliriz. Bu yanıt, vermek istediğimiz
anlama göre olumlu ya da olumsuz olabilir.

-  
Is she satisfied with her salary?

-  
I think so. (eğer
memnun olduğunu düşünüyorsak)

-  
Is she satisfied with her salary?

-       – I dont think so. (eğer memnun olmadığını
düşünüyorsak)

-  
Do we have to return our assignments tomorrow?

-  
Tm afraid so. (eğer
ödevlerimizi yarın teslim etmek zorundaysak)

-  
Will you get a raise in your salary soon?

-  
Tm afraid not. (eğer yakında zam almayacağımızı düşünüyorsak)

c)         So nun bu iki kullanımı
dışında (So
do J, So is my husband, etc., I think so, 1 don
think so,
etc.) iki kullanımı daha vardır.

1.         Eğer
do fiili, daha önceki cümlede geçen bir fiilin yerine
kullanılıyorsa, do nün
nesnesi olarak
so kullanılır.

l havent ironed your shirt
yet, but 1 will do so after breakfast.

2.        So + subject + verb kalıbı,
karşımızdakinin söylediği sözü onayladığımız anlamını v

-  
It was cold yesterday.                           

-  
So it was. (Evet,
öyleydi.)

-  
It will be hard work.       

-  
So it will. (Evet,
öyle olacak.J

-  
I
hear that you have graduated from school. That means you can start
working immediately.

-  
So it does. Ive started to look for a job already.
(Evet, öyle. İş aramaya başladım zaten.}

1-23 SIMPLE PAST and PAST PERFECT TENSES in TIME CLAUSES

1-23   SIMPLE PAST and PAST PERFECT TENSES in TIME CLAUSES

Bu tenseleri zaman bağlaçlanyla kullanırken, eylemlerin geçmişteki oluş sıralarını dikkate almamız gerekir. İki eylemden daha önce olanını Past Perfect ile, daha sonra olanını ise Simple Past ile ifade edebiliriz. First: She cleaned the house.     Second: The guests arrived.After she had cleaned the house, the guests arrived. Before the guests arrived, she had cleaned the house. She had cleaned the house when the guests arrived.a)        With afterAfter     +         Past Perfect,      Simple PastSimple PastAfter she had graduated from university, she went to England.After we had travelled on a coach for ten straight hours, we continued ourjourney by horse to get to the mountain village.After in bağlı bulunduğu cümle, cümlenin sonunda da yer alabilir.She felt better after she had taken an aspirin. After she had taken an aspirin, she felt better.After, geçmişteki iki eylemden daha önce olanını ifade ettiği için, bağlı bulunduğu cümlede normalde Past Perfect kullanılır. Ancak  after, eylemlerin sırasını zaten belirttiği için, Past Perfect yerine Simple Past da kullanabiliriz. Bu durumda anlam değişmez.After she graduated from university, she went to England.After we travelled on a coach for ten straight hours, we continued our journeyby horse to get to the mountain village.b)        With before:Before   +        Simple Past,      Past PerfectSimple PastBefore un bağlı olduğu cümle, geçmişte yapılan iki eylemden, daha sonra yapılanı ifade ettiği için, beforelu cümlede Simple Past, temel cümlede ise Past Perfect kullanılır. Ancak before da after gibi eylemlerin sırasını belirttiği için, temel cümlede Past Perfect yerine Simple Past da kullanılır.Before she came to live in this city, she had lived in İzmir. Before she came to live in this city, she lived in İzmir.I had finished my exam paper before the bell rang. I finished my exam paper before the bell rang.Before un bağlı bulunduğu cümledeki eylemin tamamlanmış olduğunu vurgulamak için, özellikle finish, complete gibi fiillerle, Past Perfect kullanmak mümkündür.The teacher didnt let anyone out before all the students had finished the test. The other students finished/had finished the test before I had even completed half of it.c)        With till / until:I didnt interrupt him until/till he finished         his speech.had finishedI didnt speak to him until/till he    spoke                        to me.had spokenUntil/till ile Past Perfect kullanımı çok yaygın değildir. Ancak, yan cümledeki eylemin temel cümledeki eylemden önce tamamlanmış olduğunu vurgulamak istersek, Past Perfect kullanabiliriz. Aksi takdirde, Simple Past kullanmamız yeterlidir.They didnt leave the office until I had completed my report. (They left after I had completed my report.)She didnt give up studying prepositions until she had learnt them by heart.Till/Until ile kurulmuş bir cümlede, Past Perfect Tensein  never, always, once, in his life gibi zarflarla kullanımını göz önüne alarak, temel cümlede Past Perfect kullanmak mümkündür.Until I saw one in Australia last year, I had never seen a kangaroo.The teacher had always been patient with us until we made her furiousyesterday.The students hadnt ever heard of that author until I mentioned him.d)         With  as soon as/once:As soon as, temel cümleyle yan cümlenin eylemleri arasında geçen zamanın çok kısa olduğunu vurgular. Eylemleri oluş sırasına göre dizdiği için, Past Perfect kullanmak zorunlu değildir. Ancak birinci eylemin tamamlandığını vurgulamak amacıyla, Simple Past yerine Past Perfect kullanabiliriz.As soon as the guests left/had left, I went straight to bed.I went to see her as soon as I heard/had heard the news.The students burst into laughter as soon as the teacher left/had left theclassroom.As soon as they found/had found a better house, they sold their old one.We decided to go shopping as soon as the rain stopped/had stopped.(Yağmur diner dinmez alışverişe çıkmaya karar verdik.)Once, as soon as ve after anlamı veren bir bağlaçtır ve çoğunlukla, bağlı bulunduğu cümlede Perfect Tenseler kullanılır.Once Id found out where he lived, I went to see him.She made herself a cup of coffee once she had put away the groceries.Once school was over, the students rushed to holiday resorts.(Okul kapanınca/Okul kapanır kapanmaz, öğrenciler tatil beldelerine akın etti.)No sooner … than ve hardly/barely/scarcely … when, as soon as ile aynı anlamı veren daha vurgulu kalıplardır. Bu kalıplar cümlenin başında yer alırsa devrik cümle yapısı kullanılır.The young couple had no sooner left the party than people began to gossip about them.No sooner had the young couple left the party than people began to gossip about them.The executive had hardfy begun his speech when his assistant interrupted him. Hardly had the executive begun his speech when his assistant interrupted him.I had barely stepped into the bath when the telephone rang.Barely had I stepped into the bath when the telephone rang.(Henüz banyoya girmiştim ki, telefon çaldı./Ben banyoya girer girmez telefonçaldı.)e) With  when:When, kullanırken dikkat edilmesi gereken bağlaçlardan biridir. Çünkü, kullandığımız tensee göre, eylemlerin birbirleriyle olan ilişkisi farklılık gösterir, anlam değişir.When he left home, I was washing the dishes.(O evden çıktığında ben bulaşık yıkıyordum.)(I started to wash the dishes before he left, and hadnt yet finished when hewas leaving.)When he left home, I washed the dishes.(O evden çıkınca, bulaşıkları yıkadım.)(I waited for him to leave home and then I started to wash the dishes.)When he left home, I had washed the dishes.(O evden çıktığında, ben bulaşıkları yıkamıştım.)(I started to wash the dishes and finished them before he left home.)She was preparing dinner when I got home.She prepared dinner when I got home.She had prepared dinner when I got home.Already, just, yet, hardly/scarcely gibi zarflan when li bir cümlede kullandığımızda, temel cümle Past Perfect Tense gerektirir.I hadnt yet replied to their letter when they came to visit me.She had hardly entered the classroom when the exam started.(Sınav başladığında, o sınıfa henüz/yenice girmişti.)When we arrived there, the film had already started.                     Eğer when in bağlı bulunduğu cümledeki eylem, temel cümledeki eylemden daha öncegerçekleşmişse, when li cümlede de Past Perfect kullanabiliriz.                                When I had explained the subject to the class, I gave them a quiz.(First, I explained the subject. Then I gave them a quiz.)When the workers had finished some of their work, they sat down to eat lunch.f)         With by the time:By the time       +          Simple Past,      Past Perfect                                                                                                                                         By the time she came back, I had finished my work.The film had already begun by the time we got to the cinema.We had already started to discuss the case by the time the manager came.By the time the guests arrived, my mother had finished all the cooking.(Konuklargelinceye kadar annem yemek pişirme işini bitirmişti.)Konuklar geldiğindeBy the time in Türkçeye çevirisine dikkat ediniz. Yukarıdaki örneği  …………….. gelinceye tadar yada …. geldiğinde biçiminde çevirdik. Bu nedenle by the time, when ile yakın bir anlama sahiptir. Geçmişte bir eylem olduğunda/oluncaya kadar, diğer bir eylem olmuştu. anlamını verir. By the time they came, I had finished cleaning.By the time I arrived at the station, the train had left.Many people had died of tuberculosis by the time scientists found a cure.Eğer, geçmişte bir eylem olduğunda, başka bir eylem zaten oluyordu  anlamını vermek istiyorsak, temel. cümlede  (already) + was/were doing kullanabiliriz.    .By the time I left the office, it was already raining.(By the time I left the office, it had already started raining.)By the time we prepared her milk, the baby was already crying.(By the time we prepared her milk, the baby had already started crying.)By the time I arrived at my date, my friends were already waiting f or me. 52  Temel cümlede Simple Past kullanılmaz. Ancak, be fiilinin past biçimi olan was/were kullanılır.By the time I noticed the leak, the kitchen floor was already full of water. By the time the journey was over, it was already midnight. By the time he retired from his work, he was sixty years old.By the time ile  until/till, Türkçeye …. oluncaya kadar biçiminde çevrildiği halde, geçmişteki iki eylem arasında farklı bir ilişkiyi ifade ederler.By the time she came back from holiday, all her plants at home had died. (When she came back, she found all her plants dead.)Yukandaki örnekte ve diğer örneklerde gördüğümüz gibi, by the time, ikinci eylem olduğunda, diğer eylem olup bitmişti  anlamını vurguluyor.   I watered her plants until she came back from holiday.Bu örnekte de gördüğümüz gibi, until/till, birinci eylemin, ikinci eylemin olduğu noktaya kadar devam ettiğini, tam o noktada bittiğini vurguluyor.By the time I got to the airport, my plane had taken off.(The plane departed some time before my arrival, so I missed it.)I went to the airport yesterday to see a friend of mine off. I stayed in thewaiting lounge until the plane took off.(I saw the plane take off and then I left the airport.)Bir noktadan diğerine sözü edilen eylemin devam ettiğini vurguladığı için until/till, stay, wait, talk, etc. gibi süreç bildiren fiillerle kullanılır. Finish, leave, arrive, etc. gibi, bir anda olup biten eylemler, until/till ile sadece olumsuz cümlede kullanılır.He stayed at my house until/till I came back from holiday. The teacher waited until/till the last student left the classroom. He didnt leave me until/till I promised to meet him after work.By the time, zaman açısından bir noktayı vurguladığı için, sadece finish, leave, arrive, etc. gibi, bir anda olup biten eylemlerle, çoğunlukla da Perfect tenselerle kullanılır.He arrived at the station at 11 oclock.He watted at the station (from 11 oclock) until/till 12 oclock, then he left.I didnt arrive at the station until/till 1 oclock. By the time I arrived at one oclock, he had left.

Gelen Aramalar: ingilizce past perfect tense konu anlatımı

11-12 VERB + NOUN + PREPOSITION

11-12 VERB + NOUN + PREPOSITIONEXERCISE 21: Match each phrase on the left below with its definition on the right. 1.    take part in2.    make sense of3.    play a trick on4.    put pressure on5.    take advantage of6.    pay attention to7.    take pleasure in8.    take charge of9.    keep an eye on10.    have confidence in11.    ca tch sigh t of12.    lose count of a)    benefit when you have the opportunityb)    enjoyc)    watch or listen carefully tod)    believe in someones abilitye)    urge or forcef)    participate ing)    watch or check from time to timeh)    deceive, often for a joke1)    forget how manyJ)    see suddenly or for a short timek)    understand1)    become responsible for EXERCISE 22: Complete the following sentences using the phrases on the left above. Use each only once with the correct form of the verb.1.    Ive    the number of tickets Ive sold. Ill have to check themagain.2.    I think somebody must be     us. Look! The laces oneveryones shoes have all been tied together.3.    He always appears just as we are about to eat, so obviously we invite him to joinus, but I think hes     our hospitality.4.    I cant    this contract. Ill have to ask my lawyer to explain it.5.    Are all of the class     the school play at the weekend?6.    I     so little     his ability to drive us there safely that I think Idrather catch the train.7.    Can you     this saucepan and make sure it doesnt burnwhile I make a quick telephone call?8     the route were taking because next time youll have todrive here on your own.9.    Dont    any more     them! Theyre working hard enough as itis.10.    Who will     the shop while the manager is away?11.    I hope nobody     us just now as we were coming in hereotherwise, they might tell our parents and then well be in real trouble.12.    I dont understand how she can    so much    her job. Minesnearly the same as hers and I dont enjoy it at all.         

Gelen Aramalar: ingilizce gramerleri noun verb video,prepositions of lace konu anlatimi