2-7 NECESSITY: must, have to, have got to

29 Ağustos 2013 by admin | Filed under İngilizce Gramer Dersleri.

2-6     NECESSITY and PROHIBITION                         

2-7    
NECESSITY: must,
have to, have got to

a)        Form

Must, have to ve have got to, gereklilik ya da zorunluluk ifade
eden yapılardır.

Students must study
hard in order to pass exams. Students have to
study hard in order to pass exams. Students have got to study hard
in order to pass exams.

have to nun soru biçimi, do kullanılarak oluşturulur.

-  
Do you have to leave now?

-   Yes, I do. (Yes.I have to leave now.)

-   Does your brother have to work so
hard?
-Yes, he does. (Yes, he has to work
so hard.)

must ve have got
to nun soru biçiminde ise, must ve have yardımcı fiil olarak kullanılır.

-  
Must you leave now?

-  
Yes, I must. fYes, I must leave now.)

 

-  
Have you got to leave now ?

-  
Yes, I have.   (Yes, I have got to leave now.)

Must ve have to nun olumsuz biçimi, dont have to, dont need to ya da neednt dır.


Do you have to get
up early tomorrow?

-  No, it is my day off. I dont
have to/dont need to/neednt get up early.


Does your brother have to get up early
tomorrow?

-  No, it is his day off. He doesnt
have to/doesnt need to/neednt get up early.


Must a student study
four hours a day?


It depends on the
student. Some students dont have to/dont need to/neednt
study so much.


Must you get a tutor?


No, I can understand
by myself. I dont have to/dont need to/neednt get a tutor.

NOT€

Must m olumsuzu olarak, ilk anda akla mustnt
geliyor. Ancak mustnt, zorunluluğu ortadan kaldıran değil, yasaklama
getiren bir yapıdır.

Must I stay in bed for a
swift recovery ? (Çabuk iyileşmek için yatmalı mıyım?)

diyen
birine, No, you mustnt. dersek, Hayır,
yatmamalısın. demiş oluruz ki, bu
da bizim ifade etmek istediğimiz düşünce değildir. Çünkü, bu soruyu soran birine Hayır, yatman gerekmez. demek
istemişizdir. Bunu da neednt, dont need to ya da dont
have to ile ifade
edebiliriz.

No, you dont have to/dont
need to/neednt stay in bed, but dont go out.

Mustnt ı ancak, yapmamalısın anlamında
kullanabiliriz. Yani, Bunu yapmamalısın, çünkü yasak ya da Bunu
yapmamalısın eğer yaparsan, sonuç kötü olacak. gibi düşünceleri ifade edebiliriz.

You mustnt smoke so much. Youll make yourself ill.

We mustnt
sit here on the grass. The notice says it is forbidden. ]

Have got to nun olumsuz biçimi ise havent got to dur.

-   Have you got to meet your friend at the bus-stop?

-  
No, I havent got
to meet him. He knows the way, and he
can come by himself.

Must, have to ve have got to nun past biçimi had to dur.

It was very busy at work yesterday. I had to work until
late.

When I was a child, there werent so many toys. We had
to make our own toys.

-   Did you have to get up early last year?

-   No, classes started at noon last year, so I didnt have to get up early.

-   Did you have to wear a uniform when you were in high school?

-   Yes, I did. (Yes, I had to wear a uniform.)

There werent so many electric
appliances in the past, so women had to spend very
long hours doing the housework.

Must ve have to, zaman olarak present ya da future eylemleri
bildirebilir.                                 

I must go now. (Present) / I must work
hard next week. (Future)

She
has to leave now. (Present) / She has to get up early tomorrow.
(Future)

Must
in present ya da future dışında başka bir kullanımı yoktur.
Have to kalıbını, diğer
tenselerle de kullanabiliriz.                                       

I have
to study now. (Present)                                            

I will
have to study hard next year. (Future)                        

I had to study hard
last year. (Simple Past)

I have had to study hard for some time.
(Present Perfect)

I had had to study very hard for some time, and so I became ill.
(Past Perfect)

b)         Use of must
and have to

must
ve have to, her ikisi de gereklilik, zorunluluk bildirmesine
karşın, must daha çok, konuşmacının kendi içinden gelen bir
zorunluluğu, have to ise dış etkenlerden kaynaklanan bir zorunluluğu yansıtır. Ancak, günlük yaşamda,
zorunluluklar arasında bu ayrımı yapmak çok zordur. Yani zorunluluğu
kişi kendi içinde mi hissediyor, yoksa bazı koşullar onu bir şeyler yapmaya mı zorluyor? Bu aynım, tek tek
cümlelerde yapamayız. Ancak, konuşmanın akışı içerisinde zorunluluğun
kaynağı netlik kazanabilir.

I must pass the university exam.                                                                               

I have
to pass the university exam.

Tek tek
ele aldığımızda, bu iki cümle arasında pek fark yoktur. Ancak, bu cümlelerin
devamında, konuşmanın akışı şöyle olmalıdır.

I must pass the
university exam. I have no other choice. If I cant pass it, I wont
get a good career and I will be unhappy.

I have to pass the university exam. My
parents have spent so much money on me. If not, Ill make them unhappy.

 T

Must  konuşmacının kendi otoritesini ifade ederken
de kullanılır.

(A doctor to his patient)

You must
stop smoking. Your lungs are getting worse.

           (Mother to her
child]                    

You must make your bed when you get up.            

(Mother to her son)                                                                      

You must brush your teeth before you go to bed.

Ancak,
kendisinden istenen bu işleri ifade ederken, kişinin have to kullanması
daha uygundur.

(the patient) I
have to stop smoking. The doctor says my lungs are getting worse.
(the child)    I have to make my bed when I get up.           

(the son)       I have to brush my teeth before I go to bed.    

pixel 2 7     NECESSITY: must, have to, have got to

Bir önceki yazımız olan 2-4 POLITE REQUESTS with WOULD YOU MIND başlıklı makalemizde POLITE REQUESTS with hakkında bilgiler verilmektedir.

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