1O-10 INVERSIONInversion cümle içinde bir sözcüğün yerini değiştirmek anlamına gelir. İngilizcede bu yer değiştirme genellikle cümlenin öznesini ve yüklemini etkiler ve elde edilen cümle devrik cümle olur.Inversion çeşitli biçimlerde yapılabilir. Yaygın kullanımları şöyle sıralayabiliriz.1. Negative ExclamationsOlumsuz soru biçimindeki bazı cümleler aslında soru değil, ünlem cümlesidir ve devrik yapıdadır.Hasnt your little boy grown since I last saw him!Doesn t she have beautiful eyes!.Arent you selfish! 2. Short Answer Agreement with so/neither/norKısa cevaplarda kullanılan so, neither ve nor, sadece yardımcı fiil kullanılarak yapılan devrik cümle yapısıdır.- I think Pele was a better player than Maradona.- So do I.- I cant stand cold coffee.- Neither can I.Nor, bağımsız iki olumsuz cümleyi bağlarken de devrik cümle yapısı kullanılır.She didnt have any money, and she didnt know anyone she could borrowsome from.She didnt have any money, nor did she know anyone she could borrow somefrom.Aynı kullanım neither ile de mümkündür, ancak neither dan önce and kullanmak gerekir.My wife and I cant stand opera, and none of our friends can either. My wife and I cant stand opera, and neither can any of our friends.Bağımsız iki olumlu cümleyi bağlarken so kullanılır, ancak neither da olduğu gibi, so dan önce and kullanmak gerekir.He was born in Hull, and his father was tooHe was born in Hull, and so was his father. 3. Wishes with Mayİngilizcede dilek, ilenme vb. duygulan ifade eden ve may ile başlayan bazı deyimler aslında devrik cümle yapısındadırMay you always be happy!May the road rise to meet you! (Irish toast)May God bless you!4. ResWctive/Luniting/Negative Adverbs and Adverbial PhrasesAşağıdaki yapıların hepsi, kısıtlama, sınırlama bildiren ya da olumsuz anlam taşıyan yapılardır. Bu yapılar cümlenin başında yer aldığı zaman cümle devrik olur.a) hardly ever/scarcely ever/barely ever/seldom/rarelyBu sözcüklerin hepsi temelde aynı anlama sahiptir. Ancak barely ever devrik cümle yapısında pek kullanılmaz.He hardly ever talks to me.Hardly ever does he talk to me.I scarcely ever actually use my mobile phone.Scarcely ever do I actually use my mobile phone.We seldom went on holiday when I was a child.Seldom/Rarefy did we go on holiday when I was a child.b) hardly … when/scarcely … when/barely … when/no sooner … thanBu kalıpların hepsi hemen hemen aynı anlamı verir. Past Perfect/Past Simple kombinasyonu en yaygın kullanımdır, ancak diğer tenselerle de kullanılabilirler. Barely … when kalıbının devrik cümlede kullanımı pek yaygın değildir.They had hardfy/scarcefy entered the building when the fire alarm went off. Hardly/Scarcely had they entered the building when the fire alarm went off.He had no sooner broken up with Linda than he fell in love with another girl. No sooner had he broken up with Linda than he fell in love with another girl.c) on no account, In/under no circumstances (in/under any circumstances)In/under any circumstances devrik cümle yapısıyla kullanılmaz. Olumsuz bir fiille düz cümle biçiminde kullanılır. Devrik cümle yapmak için In/under no circumstances kullanılır.You should not, under any circumstances, place your finger into an electricalsocket.Under no circumstances should you place your finger into an electrical socket.You are on no account to open any of these presents until Christmas morning. On no account are you to open any of these presents until Christmas morning.d) Expressions beginning with only1) only by + verb/only with + nounYou can improve your language skills onfy by practising. Onfy by practising can you improve your language skills.He onfy managed to open the jar with his wifes help. Onfy with his wifes help did he manage to open the jar.2) only In this way/only like this/only thus, etc.Robert Mugabe won re-election by manipulating the vote as he is despised byso many voters, it was possible for him to win onfy in this way…. as he is despised by so many, onfy in this way was it possible for him to win.3) only then/once/etc.My husband and I work at the same company, but we normally see each other only once a day – at lunchtime.My husband and I work at the same company, but onfy once do we normally see each other a day – at lunchtime.Hitler was appointed chancellor by President Paul von Hindenburg in 1933 it was onfy then that he became able to seize total power for himself.Hitler was appointed chancellor by President Paul von Hindenburg in 1933 onfy then did he become able to seize total power for himself.4) onfy when (after/before)Only when (after, before) ile başlayan cümlelerde, onfy ile başlayan cümlelerden farklı olarak, yan cümle değil, temel cümle devrik yapılır.Bart Simpson was allowed to go home onfy when he had written Nitric acid is not a toy, on the board 100 times.Onfy when hed written Nitric acid is not a toy, on the board 100 times was Bart Simpson allowed to go home.5) only IfOnly If, only when (after, before) gibi, temel cümlede devrik yapı gerektirir.Ill lend you the money, but only if you agree to pay it back within two weeks. Only if you agree to pay it back within two weeks will I lend you the money.e) so + adjective … that/such (a) + noun … thatI was so hungry that I would have eaten almost anything.So hungry was I that I would have eaten almost anything.Miranda is such a gullible person that she believes whatever she is told.Such a gullible person is Miranda that she believes whatever she is told.f) never (again, before, etc.)IH never set foot in that restaurant again its a terrible place! Never again will I set foot in that restaurant its a terrible place!Hed never done such a foolish thing before.Never before had he done such a foolish thing.I have never seen such awful behaviour!Never have I seen such awful behaviour!g) not till/untilNot till/until de temel cümlede devrik yapı gerektiren bir kalıptır.We cant leave until weve turned off all the computers.Not until we have turned off all the computers can we leave.h) not onlyBu kalıpta devrik cümle yapısı, not only nin bağlı bulunduğu yan cümlededir.The king believed not only in his divine right to rule, but also that he himself was infallible.Not only did the king believe in his divine right to rule, but he also believed that he himself was infallible.i) not + objectShe hasnt said a single word since she arrived.Not a single word has she said since she arrived.j) nowhereThe tango Is appreciated nowhere more than in the land of its birth, Argentina. Nowhere is the tango appreciated more than in the land of its birth, Argentina.5. With As and ThanKarşılaştırma yapan kalıplarda as ve than den sonra devrik cümle yapısı kullanılabilir.The Cambodian leader Pol Pot was a murderous dictator, as was his Ugandan contemporary Idi Amin.She is a much better swimmer than is her brother.Than ile yapılan karşılaştırmalarda, düz cümle kullanmak da mümkündür. Cümlenin yüklemi be fiili ise genellikle ikinci tarafta fiil kullanılmaz.Im a lot more patient with children than my sister is. Im a lot more patient with children than is my sister. Im a lot more patient with children than my sister.Than ile karşılaştırma yaparken, devrik cümle kullanımı, ancak iki taraftaki özneler farklıysa mümkündür.I play the flute much better now than I did five years ago.(/ play the uute much better now than did I five years ago. yanlış bir ifade olur.)6. After Adverbial/Prepositional Expressions of PlaceEğer yer bildiren bir zarf vurguyu artırmak için cümlenin başına getiriliyorsa, genellikle devrik cümle yapısı kullanılır.Out comes the sword from its sheath.Through harbours and ports pass cargoes and travellers.Under the bush lay the body of Jimmy Hoffa.Down the road came the soldiers.Up the stairs ran the children.Here comes John now. There goes the train.Birbirini takip eden olayları anlatırken kullanılan flrst/second/then gibi ifadelerle devrik cümle yapısı kullanılabilir.Many historians believe that the Egyptian and Mesopotamian civilizations emerged first then came the Indus River Valley and Minoan civilizations, and finally the Chinese civilization centered on the Huang He River Valley.7. Inversion with Conditionalsa) Type-1 Conditionals with shouldIf you see her, say hello.If you should see her, say hello.Should you see her, say hello.If we arrive early, well be able to have a coffee before the film starts.If we should arrive early, well be able to have a coffee before the film starts.Should we arrive early, well be able to have a coffee before the film starts.If I dont get there on time, go ahead and start without me. . Should I not get there on time, go ahead and start without me. (Note: Düz cümlede If… should not kullanımı mümkün değildir.)b) Type-2 Conditionals with wereIf I were a. rich man, I would not necessarily be any happier than I am now. Were I a rich man, I would not necessarily be any happier than I am now.If he were to be elected president, there might finally be some changes. Were he to be elected president, there might finally be some changes.If she werent so depressed, maybe shed come out with us tonight.Were she not so depressed, maybe she would come out with us tonight.c) Type-3 Conditionals with hadIf the assassination attempt on Adolf Hitler on July 20, 1944 had succeeded,history might have turned out quite differently.Had the assassination attempt on Adolf Hitler on July 20, 1944 succeeded,history might have turned out quite differently.If I had known that you werent going to come, I probably wouldnt have goneeither.Had I known that you werent going to come, I probably wouldnt have goneeither.If he hadnt fallen so deeply in love with her, perhaps he would be a happierperson now.Had he not fallen so deeply in love with her, perhaps he would be a happierperson now.
Bir önceki yazımız olan 7-10 SENTENCE ADVERBS başlıklı makalemizde SENTENCE ADVERBS hakkında bilgiler verilmektedir.