THE MODALS

31 Mart 2015 by HoLi | No Comments | Filed in İngilizce Gramer Dersleri

 

THE MODALS TABLE


Auxiliary

Uses

Present / future

Past

may

1. Polite request

May I borrow your pen?

 

2. Formal permission

You may leave the room.

3. Less than 50% certainty

A: Where's Tom?
B: He may be at the office.

He may have been at the office.

might

1. Less than 50% certainty

A: Where's Tom? 
B: He might be at the office.

He might have beenat the office.

2. polite request

Might I borrow your pen?

 

should

1. advisability

I should help my father in the morning.

should have helped my father yesterday.

2. 90% certainty

She should pass the exam!(future only, not present)

She should have passed the exam!

ought to

1. advisability

I ought to study tonight

I ought to have studied last night

2. 90% certainty

She ought to do well on the test. (future only, not present)

She ought to have studied last night.

had better

1. advisability with threat of bad result

You had better be on time, or we will leave without you.

(past form uncomon)

be supposed to

1. expectation

He is supposed to come at 12.

He was supposed to come at 12.

be to

1. strong expectation

You are to be here at 9:00.

You were to be here at 9:00

must

1. strong necessity

must go to class today

had to go to class yesterday

2. prohibition (negative)

You must not open that door.

 

3. 95% certainty

Mary isn't in class. She must besick (present only)

Mary must have beensick yesterday.

have to

1. necessity

have to go to class today.

had to go to class yesterday

2. lack of necessity (negative)

don't have to go to class today.

had to go to class yesterday.

have got to 

1. necessity

have got to go to class today.

had to go to class yesterday.

will

1. 100% certainty

He will be here at 6:00 ((future only)

 

2. willingness

The phone's ringing.
I'll get it.

 

3. polite request

Will you please pass the salt?

 

be going to

1. 100% certainty

He is going to be here at 6:00 (future only)

 

2. definite plan

I'm going to paint my bedroom. (future only)

was going to paintmy room, but I didn't have time.

can

1. ability / possibility

can run fast.

could run fast when I was a child but now I can't.

2. informal permission

You can use my car tomorrow.

 

3. informal polite request

Can I borrow your pen?

 

4. impossibility (negative only)

That can't be true!

That can't have beentrue!

could

1. past ability

 

could run fast when I was a child.

2. polite request

Could I borrow your pen?
Could you help me?

 

3. suggestion

A: I need help in English.
B: You could talk to your English teacher.

You could have talked to your teacher.

4. less than 50% certainty

A: Where's John?
B: He could be at home.

He could have beenat home.

5. impossibility (negative only).

That couldn't be true!

That couldn't have been true!

be able to 

1. ability

I am able to help you. will be able to help you.

was able to helphim.

would

1. polite request

Would you please pass salt?Would you mind if I left early?

 

2. preference

would rather go to the park than stay home.

would rather have gone to the park.

3. repeated action in the past

 

When I was a child, Iwould visit my grandmother every weekend.

used to

1. repeated action in the past

 

When I was a child, Iwould visit my grandmother every weekend.

shall

1. polite question to make a suggestions

Shall I open the window?

 

2. future with "I" or "we" as subject

I shall leave at nine. (will =more common)

 

THE FUTURE “BE GOING TO”

31 Mart 2015 by HoLi | No Comments | Filed in İngilizce Gramer Dersleri

 

THE FUTURE "BE GOING TO"

A. USE

1. The Future Going to is used to talk about a future intention when a decision has already been made and also used to talk about future predictions when there is evidence that something is going to happen.

Be Going To'nun "going" ile hiç bir alakası yoktur ve her zaman "be" ile kullanılır. Yapılması önceden planlanmış eylemleri "Be Going To" ile ifade edebiliriz. Ayrıca gelecekte olması kesin bir durumu ifade ederken yine "Be Going To" kullanılır. Ancak, gelecekle ilgili bir durumu tahmin ediyorsak veya tahminde bulunuyorsak, Will veya Be Going To her ikisi de kullanılabilir.

I feel terrible. I think I'm going to faint.
They'
re going to meet us in the cafe after the lesson

Look at those clouds! It's going to rain
According to the weather report, it will / 
is going to be rainy tomorrow.

We are going to meet each other tonight at 6:00 PM. (Plan)
He 
is going to spend his vacation in Hawaii. (Plan)

The year 2222 is going to be a very interesting year. (Prediction)
A beautiful dinner
 is going to be made by Sally tonight. (An example for passives)

 

 

THE FUTURE PERFECT CONTINUOUS TENSE

30 Mart 2015 by HoLi | No Comments | Filed in İngilizce Gramer Dersleri

 

THE FUTURE PERFECT CONTINUOUS TENSE

A. USE

1. The Future Perfect Continuous tense is used to express a continuous, action which will be completed by a certain time in the future. 
Future Perfect Continuous, gelecekte bir eylemin olayın ne kadar süre devam etmekte olduğunu belirtmek için kullanılır. 

When we arrive in Izmir, we will have been driving for 17 hours.
By the time the match starts, we 
will have been waiting here for three hours.

B. STRUCTURE

Positive Structure:

I   
You  
He  
Shewill havebeen working.
It  
We  
They  

Negative Structure:

I  
You  
He  
Shewill not havebeen working.
Itwon't have 
We  
They  

Question structure:

 I  
 You 
WillHe 
Won'tShehave been working?
 It 
 We 
 They